Statistical packages for the social science

The software is now officially known as IBM SPSS Statistics since SPSS was purchased by IBM in 2009, although most users call it Statistical packages for the social science.

SPSS features outlined

You can find these types of data from numerous sources: scientific research, customer databases, Google Analytics, and even the server log files of a website. All of the widely used file formats for structured data can be opened with SPSS, including and can get spss assignment help.

 

  • Excel or OpenOffice spreadsheets;
  • simple text files (.txt or .csv);
  • SQL (relational) databases;
  • SAS and Stata.

Now let’s explore the look and feel of Statistical packages for the social science.

Viewing Statistical packages for the social science data

SPSS displays the data in a spreadsheet-like format after opening it. Our data values are displayed in this sheet, called data view. In the first record, for example, there is a male respondent from 1979. A second sheet shows in more detail what our variables and data values mean.

Viewing variables in SPSS

The variable view is found in every Statistical packages for the social science file. This presents the metadata related to the data. A variable’s metadata describes what the variable means. SPSS refers to this as the “dictionary,” even though it is usually referred to as “codebook”

Analyze data

As we understand it, SPSS opens all kinds of data in its Data Editor window and displays them in two sheets along with their metadata. What are the steps to analyzing your data with SPSS? 

SPSS has elaborate menu options, so that is an option. By navigating to Descriptive Statistics, we can find the average income as shown below, if our data include income variables over 2010.

By doing so, we are presented with a dialog box in which we can choose one or more variables and one or more statistics to examine.

Input Window of SPSS

As soon as you click Ok, you will be presented with an output viewer window from SPSS. This window will display all the statistics for the variables you chose. Here’s an example.

There is a difference between the layout and structure of the Output Viewer and the Data Editor we saw earlier. Our data is not altered in any way when we generate output in SPSS; unlike Excel, SPSS takes data and enables research based on it in different windows.

 Compared to a Powerpoint slide, SPSS’ Output Viewer window probably resembles the look and feel of a text block, table, and chart.

Reporting using SPSS

You can easily copy and paste SPSS Output items into other programs. Reports are usually created using MS Word, OpenOffice, or GoogleDocs, for example. It is common for tables to be copied in rich text format, so the fonts and borders will be retained. Here is an example.

A window for editing SPSS syntax

We can now open a third window, dubbed the syntax editor, in SPSS to run this command (or any other command) as well. SPSS syntax is what we can type and run here. Let’s say we want to run

descriptives income_2010.

By clicking through SPSS’ menu options, you can normally paste most of the commands into the Syntax Editor window instead of typing them in. In this way, it can still be used by people unfamiliar with syntax. SPSS’s menu is so convenient, so why learn syntax?

A good way to manage syntax is to save, correct, rerun, and shared between users or projects. SPSS work is reliable when you manage your syntax correctly. Any time someone has a question about your results, you can demonstrate exactly what you have done and -if necessary- correct it and rerun it right away.

SPSS’ Syntax Editor window looks and feels similar to Notepad: basically, just plain text that is displayed in a single window.

Features of SPSS – Overview

Let’s take a closer look at what SPSS can do now that we understand how it works. SPSS can be used to:

 

  • SPSS’ own or any other data file formats;
  • The act of editing data such as computing sums and means based on columns and rows of information. There are many possibilities for more complex computations in SPSS.
  • Creating statistics and tables to summarize data for (groups of) cases and variables.
  • Calculating inference statistics with ANOVA, regression, and factor analysis.
  • Creating output files in several different formats.

How to open a data file

Data files for SPSS are in their format. In addition to MS Excel, plain text files, SQL, Stata, and SAS, the software easily handles other types of files.

Editing of data

Before raw data can be analyzed in the real world, they usually need to be edited. We can create new variables by using means or sums, we can restructure data, or we can detect and remove unlikely observations. This and other complex tasks are handled by SPSS with remarkable efficiency.

Many numeric, string, date, and other useful functions are available in SPSS for performing tasks quickly.

Final words

You can find these types of data from numerous sources: scientific research, customer databases, Google Analytics, and even the server log files of a website. All of the widely used file formats for structured data can be opened with SPSS, including. Our data values are displayed in this sheet, called data view. In the first record, for example, there is a male respondent from 1979. The variable view is found in every Statistical packages for the social science file. As soon as you click Ok, you will be presented with an output viewer window from SPSS. This window will display all the statistics for the variables you chose.

 

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